Posts Tagged ‘Jehovah’s Witnesses’

Christmas Is Christian

Growing up as a Jehovah’s Witness we were constantly taught that the Jehovah’s Witnesses had re-established authentic Christianity that was originally taught by the Apostles but had been corrupted by pagan practices and beliefs such as the celebration of Christmas.  Therefore, as Jehovah’s Witnesses we did not celebrate Christmas.

The story is that the date of Christmas was basically chosen by the Early Church to co-opt a pagan Roman holiday that celebrated the “Unconquerable Sun”.  Because of this, the Jehovah’s Witnesses say that Christmas and the traditions associated with the Christmas celebration are pagan and this is just another example of how Christianity was corrupted in the centuries after the apostles died.

I usually respond to these objections in a couple of ways:

1. As a Catholic, I believe that human nature, while wounded, is basically good and that all religions contain some truth in it.  So, it is a common practice for Christian missionaries to look at a native non-Christian culture and religion and to emphasize those practices that are good and consistent with Christian beliefs so as to evangelize.  Therefore, if the claims made by the Jehovah’s Witnesses are true and the early Church did Christianize a pagan holiday and did take those elements of a pagan holiday that were good and give them a Christian meaning, I really have no problem with it.  That is an example of how we, as Christians, are commanded to evangelize and use those good beliefs and practices found in a native non-Christian culture or religion as a springboard to giving these people the fullness of truth in Christ.

2. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that much of the historical scholarship making the claim that the Early Church chose December 25th as the date for the birth of Christ because they wanted to co-opt a pagan festival is not accurate.  According to Professor William Tighe, the date that the Early Church chose for Jesus’ birth had nothing to do with the ancient Roman festival of the Sun but had to do with the Early Christian’s attempts to set a date for the death and resurrection of Christ.  In the West, the date that many Christians settled upon for this event was March 25th. Evidently there was a tradition in the early Church based on a Jewish understanding of the birth and death of the great Jewish prophets that Jesus, who would be the fulfillment of all of the prophets, would be conceived on the same date that he would die just like all of the Jewish prophets of old.  This means that the early Church believed that the Blessed Mother conceived Jesus on March 25th.  In fact, to this day, the Western Church celebrates March 25th as the Feast of the Annunciation when Jesus was conceived.  If one counts nine months from March 25th, one gets December 25th as the birth date for Jesus.

Furthermore, the earliest Christian source that places Jesus birth on December 25th is recorded for us by Hippolytus of Rome in his Commentary On Daniel in 202 A.D.  While this section of his work was thought to have been a forgery, it appears as though more current scholarship suggests that this section of his writing is authentic.

If one realizes that the earliest record we have of a pagan Roman celebration occurring on December 25th is dated to 274 A.D., one could conclude that Christians claimed this date as Christ’s birth some 72 years before the pagans chose that date for their festival. In fact, Professor Tighe suggests:

“Thus, December 25th as the date of the Christ’s birth appears to owe nothing whatsoever to pagan influences upon the practice of the Church during or after Constantine’s time. It is wholly unlikely to have been the actual date of Christ’s birth, but it arose entirely from the efforts of early Latin Christians to determine the historical date of Christ’s death.

And the pagan feast which the Emperor Aurelian instituted on that date in the year 274 was not only an effort to use the winter solstice to make a political statement, but also almost certainly an attempt to give a pagan significance to a date already of importance to Roman Christians. The Christians, in turn, could at a later date re-appropriate the pagan “Birth of the Unconquered Sun” to refer, on the occasion of the birth of Christ, to the rising of the “Sun of Salvation” or the “Sun of Justice.””-Calculating Christmas

Kind of funny as with most things taught to us by the Jehovah’s Witnesses, that just the opposite of what they claim is most likely true.

In any case, the birth of Our Lord is a joyous occasion for Christians throughout the world.  It is something that was celebrated with song by the angels in heaven and with amazement by the Shepherds of the fields and with gifts from the Wise Men of the East.  When I read the Christmas story in the Gospels, it sounds like a party to me and it is one party that I would like to celebrate with the hosts of heaven and all people of good will.

For more information, here are some links to other sources:

http://www.touchstonemag.com/archives/article.php?id=16-10-012-v

http://piousfabrications.blogspot.com/2010/12/pagan-origins-of-christmas.html

http://www.bib-arch.org/e-features/christmas.asp#location1

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Are the JWs Really the Re-establishment of 1st Century Christianity?

The JWs taught me that their organization is the re-establishment of authentic 1st Century Christianity without the “pagan” influences found in the Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Churches.  So, I reasoned that if the JWs are correct, then I should be able to find their doctrines in the writings of those Christians who were alive when the Apostles were still alive.  What I found was quite shocking to me.

I started with the writings of St. Ignatius who was the Bishop of Antioch.  He was taken to Rome where he was martyred for the faith.  During his trip to Rome, he wrote a series of letters to the Christian communities along the way.  These letters are believed to have been written as early as 98 A.D. which means that St. Ignatius was a contemporary of St. John the Apostle.

In the his writings, St. Ignatius confesses Jesus as God and, furthermore, is willing to die for this belief.  He also refers to the Eucharist as the flesh of Jesus Christ which is a very Catholic understanding of the Eucharist.  Here are some examples:

“being united and elected through the true passion by the will of the Father, and Jesus Christ, our God.”-The Epistle to the Ephesians

“There is one Physician who is possessed both of flesh and spirit; both made and not made; God existing in flesh; true life in death; both of Mary and of God; first passible and then impassible— even Jesus Christ our Lord.”-The Epistle to the Ephesians

“For our GodJesus Christ, was, according to the appointment of God, conceived in the womb by Mary, of the seed of David, but by the Holy Ghost. He was born and baptized, that by His passion He might purify the water.”-The Epistle to the Ephesians

“Be on your guard, therefore, against such persons. And this will be the case with you if you are not puffed up, and continue in intimate union with Jesus Christ our God, and the bishop, and the enactments of the apostles”.-The Epistle to the Trallians

For our GodJesus Christ, now that He is with the Father, is all the more revealed[in His glory]. Christianity is not a thing of silence only, but also of [manifest] greatness.-The Epistle to the Romans

“I desire the bread of God, the heavenly bread, the bread of life, which is the flesh of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who became afterwards of the seed of David and Abraham; and I desire the drink of God, namely His blood, which is incorruptible love and eternal life.”-The Epistle to the Romans

“Permit me to be an imitator of the passion of my God.”-The Epistle to the Romans

The writings of Ignatius really affected me because as a JW I was taught that after the Apostles died all of the “Catholic type of false doctrines” began to arise among the early Christians.  However, here was a leader of the Christian community in Antioch willing to die for these “Catholic” beliefs and he was alive during the time of the Apostle John.  Furthermore, no matter what Early Church Father I read, I discovered that their beliefs were in no way, shape or form similar to anything that the JWs taught or continue to teach at this time.  Therefore, I had to wonder if the claims that the JWs make of being the re-establishment of organized first century Christianity on earth was really something that I could believe in.


If you would like more information on the Early Church Fathers and what they believed compared to what the JWs claim you may wish to read the following:

THE WATCHTOWER AND THE ANTE-NICENE CHURCH FATHERS  by Michael J. Partyka

Jehovah’s Witnesses on Trial:  The Testimony of the Early Church Fathers by Robert U. Finnerty

After I read about the beliefs of the Early Church Fathers, I began wondering how it is that Christians decided what books to place in the New Testament or, as the JWs call it, the Christian Greek Scriptures.  The information I discovered here went a long way to attracting me to the Catholic Church.  I will talk about this in my next blog post.

Academic Dishonesty or Incompetence-What Did the Experts *Really* Say?

About the time Wayne Rogers and I had our discussion on how to properly interpret those proof text used by Trinitarians on the nature of God, I got a phone call from some Lutheran friends of mine who lived in Nebraska.  At the time I was a professor at Concordia University in Seward, NE and there was a small Jehovah’s Witness Kingdom Hall there. 

Evidently, some JWs were visiting some Lutheran friends of mine who attended the local Lutheran parish in Seward and these JWs had given them a copy of the brochure “Should You Believe in the Trinity?”  I had heard that the JW author of this booklet, which is still published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, had included many quotes in this booklet from history and theology experts to support the JWs’ views on the nature of God.  When my Lutheran friends had read the booklet they were confused by these quotes and troubled because there were no references in the booklet other than at most an author’s name and perhaps a title to a book or article.

Since, the local Lutheran college had a rather extensive theological collection, I told my Lutheran friends to meet me at the college library and that we would try to find as many of the references cited in the JWs’ booklet as we could to see if they had been taken out of context in some way.  The results of this exercise were shocking not only to my Lutheran friends but to me as well.

Here is an example of one of the many misquotes we found in the JWs’ booklet “Should You Believe in the Trinity?”  The JW author of the booklet is constantly making the argument that a faithful Christian would reject the Trinity doctrine because the Christian Greek Scriptures (that is JW speak for the New Testament), does not clearly present the Trinity doctrine.  In support of this view, they quote a ton of scholars who appear to support the JW author’s point of view.  Here is an example of one of the quotes that they use:

“Bernhard Lohse says in A Short History of Christian Doctrine: “As far as the New Testament is concerned, one does not find in it an actual doctrine of the Trinity.””  http://www.watchtower.org/e/ti/article_03.htm

For the trusting reader, this quote seems to be quite convincing.  However there is no page number cited in the booklet where one can go and read the original quotation in its entirety.  If one does, then one would get a whole different perspective on what Bernhard Lohse was trying to say.  Here is the quote in its entirety on page 38 of the book A Short History of Christian Doctrine:

“As far as the New Testament is concerned, one does not find in it an actual doctrine of the Trinity.  This does not mean very much, however, for generally speaking the New Testament is less intent upon setting forth certain doctrines than it is upon proclaiming the kingdom of God, a kingdom that dawns in and with the person of Jesus Christ.  At the same time, however, there are in the New Testament the rudiments of a concept of God that was susceptible of further development and clarification, along doctrinal lines.”

As one can see from the entire quote (as well as by reading the entire book), Lohse does not reject the Trinity and neither does he say that the Trinity is not found in the New Testament at all as the JW author claims he does.  What Lohse does say is that the fully formulated Trinity doctrine is not found in the New Testament but the “rudiments” of such a concept of God are found in the New Testament and the Church, over time, developed those ideas into the Trinity Doctrine.  In fact on page 41 of the book A Short History of Christian Doctrine, Lohse says:

“From the beginning, of course, certain fundamentals were firmly held by the church, namely, that God is one, i.e., that it did not believe in two, let alone three gods; that this one God has revealed himself in a threefold way as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit;”

The worse of the misquotes and misrepresentations that the JW author uses is when he quotes from Father Edward Fortman’s book entitled The Triune God.  To the trusting reader the JW author makes it appear as though Father Fortman, a Catholic priest no less, rejects the central doctrine of the religion that he is supposed to be advocating.  However, any reasonably intelligent individual can tell by reading just the first few pages of his book that Father Fortman is a very strong believer and defender of the Trinity doctrine and that his book is dealing with how the Church formulated this belief from Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition. 

The JW author’s reputation for misrepresenting and misquoting scholars in this booklet alone is the subject of TONS of websites.  If you want more examples, I will refer you to the following links:

http://www.bible.ca/trinity/trinity-jw-deceptions.htm

http://www.jwfacts.com/watchtower/trinity.php

http://www.towertotruth.net/ShouldYouBelieveintheTrinity.htm#top

In any case, after discovering these misquotes and misrepresentations, my Lutheran friends were very upset that someone would write and publish such a dishonest brochure.  They made photocopies of the full quotes and also checked out those books from the college library that they could to show their JW visitors how the author of the “Should You Believe in The Trinity?” booklet was misrepresenting things. 

About two months later, I got another call from my Lutheran friends and they told me that they had shared their information with their JW visitors.  They told me that the JW visitors were visibly shaken at what had been shared with them and that they took the photocopies with the promise that they would come back with an explanation.  However, my Lutheran friends said that their JW visitors never returned on the day they said they would.  In fact, when my Lutheran friends saw their JW visitors at a local restaurant and went over to say hello to them, the JWs quickly left the restaurant and refused to speak to my Lutheran friends.

I told my Lutheran friends that they should now pray for their JW visitors because obviously some seeds of doubt had been planted in them about whether or not the Watchtower Society leaders could be trusted when it comes to dealing with subjects about the nature of God.  It is one thing to believe differently than others but it is a whole other thing to grossly misrepresent the beliefs of others in such an academically dishonest, at worse, or academically incompetent, at best, way.

About a week or so after I had coached my Lutheran friends and after they had been shunned by their JW friends at the local restaurant, two JW elders knocked on my door.  The little town where I lived in Nebraska was quite small so it did not take the local elders long to discover who it was who had been coaching the local Lutherans in their discussions with the local JWs.

 Evidently, one of the elders who visited me was the Presiding Elder of the local congregation and his daughter was one of the JWs who had visited my Lutheran friends.  I imagine that the presentation that my Lutheran friends had given her must have really shaken her up to make her father go on a search and visit mission to meet with me.  The two elders tried to discover who I was and where I was from and when I did not give them the information they wanted and when I told them my intention was to continue to share this information with whomever would visit my home and the homes of my Lutheran friends, the two JW elders got quite angry.  (In fact, one of them got in my face and began to close his fist as if getting ready to hit me when the other elder pulled him back and convinced him to leave.)

Another thing that happened during this time was that in addition to misquoting Biblical Scholars of the 19th and 20th centuries in this booklet, the JWs also misrepresented a group of individuals known as The Early Church Fathers.  These individuals wrote about the beliefs of the Christians during the end of the 1st Century and beyond.  I will discuss what I discovered in these writings next.

The Creation Contradiction

One of the contradictions that was pointed out to me by Jay Hess had to do with answering the question, “Who created the heavens and the earth?”

For example in the New World Translation the following scriptures from the Old Testament indicate that Jehovah, whom the Jehovah’s Witnesses would say is God the Father, is the One who created everything by Himself with no assistance from anyone:

“This is what Jehovah has said, your Repurchaser and the Former of you from the belly: “I, Jehovah, am doing everything, stretching out the heavens by myself, laying out the earth.  Who was with me?”-Isaiah 44: 24 -New World Translation

“This is what Jehovah has said, the Holy One of Israel and the Former of him: “Ask me even about the things that are coming concerning my sons; and concerning the activity of my hands you people should command me. I myself have made the earth and have created even many upon it.  I –my own hands have stretched out the heavens, and all the army of them I have commanded.” –Isaiah 45: 11, 12 New World Translation

However, the JWs believe that Jesus was created directly by Jehovah and was used by Jehovah to help him create the rest of the Universe.  To support this view of Jesus being responsible for the creation of the Universe they cite the following scripture (remember that the Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that the Word (in Greek “Logos”) is Jesus in his pre-human existence):

“In [the] beginning the Word was, and the Word was with God, and the Word was a god. This one was in [the] beginning with God.  All things came into existence through him, and apart from him not even one thing came into existence.” John 1:1-3 New World Translation

Note that the JWs’ own Bible indicates that not one thing that came into existence came into existence apart from the work of the Word-Jesus Christ.  However, if one accepts the belief that Jesus is not equal in nature to God the Father and that the Word, Jesus, cannot also be rightly referred to as Jehovah (or Yahweh), then it appears as though the Old Testament claims made by Jehovah in Isaiah are contradicting the New Testament claims made about the Word, Jesus, in the Gospel of John.   In other words, how could Jehovah (or Yahweh) make the claim that He created the heavens and earth by Himself if Jesus was there to help Him as the JWs claim?

For a Trinitarian, however, this is not a problem because Trinitarians believe that Jesus has all of the attributes and abilities of God the Father and, therefore, can also be referred to as Jehovah (or Yahweh) so then there is no contradiction here.   As the Catechism of the Catholic Church states in paragraph 292:

The Old Testament suggests and the New Covenant reveals the creative action of the Son and the Spirit, inseparably one with that of the Father. This creative co-operation is clearly affirmed in the Church’s rule of faith: “There exists but one God. . . he is the Father, God, the Creator, the author, the giver of order. He made all things by himself, that is, by his Word and by his Wisdom”, “by the Son and the Spirit” who, so to speak, are “his hands”. Creation is the common work of the Holy Trinity.”

If you remember, this discussion on the Trinity started when a former JW, Wayne Rogers, asked me why I accepted the divinity of Christ after leaving the JWs. What I have written over the last few weeks is what I learned from mostly Protestant Bible Scholars about what most Christians believed about the nature of God.  After sharing these views with Wayne, his response to me was, “You know, all of these scriptures that you shared with me were pretty much the same ones we used as JWs, you have just interpreted them differently now.  How do you know that your interpretation of these scriptures is correct?”

I thought that was an excellent question so I told him that I would do some reading to see how Christians interpreted these scriptures back in the first and second centuries.  This lead me to discovering the writings of the Early Church Fathers.  I will share these findings with you in the coming weeks.

Book Review: Attic Alone-An Ex-Jehovah’s Witness Finds the Church by A. McGinley

This book starts off with a terrible scene.

A. McGinley tells the story of her large, imposing and abusive Jehovah’s Witness father placing drops of acid on her arm.  This was a common practice among the Jehovah’s Witnesses in the 1940’s as it was against their religion to receive smallpox vaccinations.  The scar left behind from the acid burns on her arm would look like a scar from a smallpox vaccination.  This imitation vaccination scar along with a falsified medical record was all that her father needed to get McGinley into grammar school since children who were not vaccinated against smallpox back in the 1940’s were not allowed to attend school.

The physical pain that McGinley describes from this imitation smallpox vaccine is a fitting metaphor for the emotional and spiritual pain that she received from the imitation Gospel of the Jehovah’s Witnesses.  Just as I could imagine hearing her screaming in pain due to the acid burns while her Mother comforts her, I could also feel her emotional and spiritual pain that she recounts for us throughout the book as the imitation Gospel of the Jehovah’s Witnesses is foisted upon her by her JW father and JW grandmother while her Mother comforts her as best she can.  Throughout the book, the only other place she can go for comfort besides her Mother’s embrace is the Attic of her home all alone which soon becomes the Attic of her soul.

However, while suffering due to the effects of the mind controlling and abusive nature of the Jehovah’s Witnesses and the destruction they caused on her family, A. McGinley recounts the many rays of light that she experienced in her life.  She walks us through the grace that God gives her as she makes her way home to the fullness of the Christian faith in the Catholic Church.  From learning how to say the Lord’s Prayer while in grammar school, which turns out to be the only prayer she can say for many years, to the altar call at the same Church which she saw through the hospital window during her son’s illness, she recounts the amazing ways in which Our Lord called to her in her moments of need.

A. McGinley’s book is truly a journey of grace and reminds us that while problems in this world may make us want to retreat into our “Attic Alone”, that we really do have a friend in Christ who is with us at all times and at all places along our journey to heaven.

The JWs’ Modalism Mistake.

Trinitarians reject Modalism

As I read more and more documents, Protestant, Orthodox, and Catholic, about what these Christians believed about the nature of God, the more I realized how mistaken JWs are when they try to characterize what it is Protestant, Orthodox and Catholic Christians believe about the nature of God.  For example in the Watchtower publication known as Reasoning from the Scriptures on page 405 it says the following about how Christians explain the Trinity doctrine:

“According to the Athanasian Creed, there are three divine Persons (the Father, the Son, the Holy Ghost), each said to be eternal, each said to be almighty, none greater or less than another, each said to be God, and yet together being but one God. Other statements of the dogma emphasize that these three “Persons” are not separate and distinct individuals but are three modes in which the divine essence exists.”

The latter part of the quote above which says that some Trinitarians believe that the “Persons” of the Blessed Trinity are not ‘separate and distinct individuals but are three modes in which the divine essence exists’, is not an accurate representation of the Trinity doctrine but it is an accurate description of another doctrine regarding the nature of God known as Modalism.

Modalism is described as a heresy by the Protestant Theologian Dr. Robert Morey in his book The Trinity-Evidence and Issues.  He describes what Modalism is on page 507:

“From the beginning, Modalism was based on the Platonic doctrine that God was an indivisible Monad and could not be divided into three separate Persons.  Thus, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are not to be viewed as three distinct Persons, but as three different manifestations, modes, administrations, disguises, roles, or offices of one and the same Person.”

Also, the Catechism of the Catholic Church says the following in paragraph 254:

“The divine persons are really distinct from one another.  God is one but not solitary. “Father”, “Son”, “Holy Spirit” are not simply names designating modalities of the divine being, for they are really distinct from one another: “He is not the Father who is the Son, nor is the Son he who is the Father, nor is the Holy Spirit he who is the Father or the Son.” They are distinct from one another in their relations of origin: “It is the Father who generates, the Son who is begotten, and the Holy Spirit who proceeds.” The divine Unity is Triune.”

So, in reality then, neither mainstream Protestant, Orthodox, nor Catholic scholars believe that the Father, the Son, and the Spirit are the same person.  This means that much of the arguments that the JWs believe they are making against the Trinity doctrine are really arguments being made against the heresy of Modalism.  For example, in the book You Can Live Forever In Paradise On Earth on page 39 under the subheading IS GOD JESUS OR A TRINITY? it says:

“Further, on one occasion Jesus prayed to God, saying: “Let, not my will, but yours take place.” (Luke 22:42) If Jesus were the Almighty God, he would not have prayed to himself, would he?”

This question may cause a problem for a person who believes in Modalism and but it does not for a Trinitarian.  For the Trinitarian, Jesus is praying to God the Father who is a separate person from the Son.  However, Trinitarians do believe that Jesus, as God’s Son, has all of the qualities and attributes of God the Father and is, Almighty God by nature in a similar manner as a human child has all of the qualities of his human parents and is human by nature.

One of the many problems that I began to discover when accepting the JWs’ view of the nature of God is that I started seeing some serious contradictions between the Old and New Testaments when it came to dealing with the revelation about God’s nature.  I will explore this next.

The Holy Spirit is a Person and The Holy Spirit is God

The Holy Spirit is a Person

The JWs, deny the personhood of the Holy Spirit.  The scriptural evidence they give to say that the Holy Spirit is not a person is as follows:

“As for the “Holy Spirit,” the so-called third Person of the Trinity, we have already seen that this is not a person but God’s active force.  John the Baptizer said that Jesus would baptize with holy spirit, even as John had been baptizing with water.  Hence, in the same way that water is not a person, holy spirit is not a person. (Matthew 3:11)  What John foretold was fulfilled when, following the death and resurrection of Jesus, holy spirit was poured out on his followers gathered in Jerusalem.  The Bible says: “They all became filled with holy spirit.” (Acts 2:4)  Were they “filled” with a person?  No, but they were filled with God’s active force.”- You Can Live Forever In Paradise On Earth page 40

However, the JWs will admit that anyone in the Bible who is depicted has having an intellect and will is a person.  They say this in their discussion about the person of God when they say on page 36 of the book You Can Live Forever In Paradise On Earth, that God exhibits intelligence and, therefore, this along with him having a body makes God a person.

If the Holy Spirit is a person, we would expect for the Bible to describe and attribute to the Holy Spirit those qualities and abilities that we would expect a person to have such as intellect (the ability to know), emotion (the ability to feel) and will (the ability to choose).   An impersonal active force, however, would not have these capabilities.  Notice how the actions of the Holy Spirit are described even in the New World Translation:

“But when they are leading you along to deliver you up, do not be anxious before-hand about what to speak; but whatever is given you in that hour, speak this, for you are not the ones speaking, but the holy spirit is.”-Mark 13:11

“Thus says the holy spirit, ‘The man to whom this girdle belongs the Jews will bind in this manner in Jerusalem and deliver into the hands of people of the nations.”- Acts 21:11

“Moreover, the holy spirit also bears witness to us,”-Hebrews 10:15

After I read these scriptures, I wondered how an impersonal force can speak or bear witness as in a courtroom.  Notice the next examples from the New World Translation:

“As they were publically ministering to Jehovah and fasting, the holy spirit said: “Of all persons set Barnabas and Saul apart for me for the work to which I have called them.”-Acts 13:2

“For the holy spirit and we ourselves have favored adding no further burden to you, except these necessary things.” Acts 15:28

“Moreover, they went through Phrygia and the country of Galatia, because they were forbidden by the holy spirit to speak the word in the [district of] Asia.-Acts 16:6

“Pay attention to yourselves and to all the flock, among which the holy spirit has appointed you overseers, to shepherd the congregation of God, which he purchased with the blood of his own [Son].-Acts 20:28

After I read these scriptures, I wondered how an impersonal force can choose individuals, choose not to add further burdens to others, forbid the apostles from going to Asia, and even choose overseers in the local congregations in Ephesus.  These are all examples of what a person would do who has intellect (the ability to know) and will (the ability to choose).  Notice the next scripture from the New World Translation:

“Also, do not be grieving God’s holy spirit, with which you have been sealed for a day of releasing by ransom.”-Hebrews 10:29

After reading this scripture, I wondered how an impersonal force could feel grieved.  Here was another example of the Holy Spirit having the emotional attribute (the ability to feel) of a person.

In short, there are many references to the Holy Spirit as a person, even in the JWs own New World Translation of the Bible.  The JWs response to this would be to say that the inspired writers are merely using the literary technique of personification which is that they are giving the attributes of personhood to a thing whereas a more correct understanding of scripture would be to realize that the holy spirit is merely a force belonging to God that is no more a person than the natural forces of fire and water.

At this point, I was rather confused as to which perspective was most correct.  It seemed that I was at an impasse as both the JWs and the Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians could both point to scriptures which appeared to support their very different points of view.  However, I was impressed by the number of scriptures that the Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians could cite in support of the Holy Spirit being a person.

What I wanted to know now, was how Catholics, Orthodox, and Protestants came to the conclusion that the Holy Spirit is God, the third person of the Blessed Trinity, using the Bible.

The Holy Spirit is God!

During our discussion on the Divinity of Christ, I gave examples of how the New Testament writers applied Old Testament scriptures that the Jews applied to Jehovah (or Yahweh) and now applied these to Christ.  These examples went a long way in helping me to see how Christians, Orthodox, Protestant, and Catholic could come to the conclusion using the Bible that Jesus is God by nature because according to the writers of the New Testament, Jesus has all of the qualities of God the Father while being a separate person from God the Father.  I wondered, if there were any examples of this relating to the Holy Spirit.  With the help of the JWs own New World Translation of the Bible and the book The Trinity: Evidence and Issues by Dr. Robert Morey, I found some examples that proved to be very troubling for me.

In Acts 28:25-27, St. Paul is speaking to the Jewish people of the city of Rome about the Gospel of Jesus.  In his last words to them, the following is said according to the New World Translation:

“The holy spirit aptly spoke through Isaiah the prophet to your forefathers, saying, ‘Go to this people and say: “By hearing, you will hear but by no means understand; and, looking you will look but by no means see.” For the heart of this people has grown unreceptive, and with their ears they have heard without response, and they have shut their eyes; that they should never see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and turn back, and I should heal them.”

In the 1984 Reference Edition of the New World Translation, it has a cross-reference to the book of Isaiah chapter 6.  Notice who Isaiah says is speaking these words:

“And I began to hear the voice of Jehovah saying: “Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?” And proceeded to say: “Here I am! Send me.” And he went on to say: “Go, and you must say to this people, ‘Hear again and again, O men, but do not understand; and see again and again, but do not get any knowledge.’ Make the heart of this people unreceptive, and make their very ears unresponsive, and past their very eyes together, that they may not see with their eyes and with their ears they many not hear, and that their own heart may not understand and that they may not actually turn back and get healing for themselves.”-Isaiah 6:8-10 New World Translation

So, in addition to St. Paul saying that the Holy Spirit speaks which in and of itself seems to indicate that the Holy Spirit is a person, St. Paul attributes the words of Jehovah from the book of Isaiah as coming from the Holy Spirit.  I found this troubling because how can an impersonal force speak and, furthermore, how can an impersonal force speak as if it is Almighty God, Jehovah, Himself?

In another example of this, the writer of the book of Hebrews says that the Holy Spirit bears witness to us as in a courtroom about the New Covenant that Jehovah wishes to make with his faithful people.   Here is what it says in the New World Translation:

Moreover, the holy spirit also bears witness to us, for after it has said: “ ‘This is the covenant that I shall covenant toward them after those days,’ says Jehovah.  ‘I will put my laws in their hearts, and in their minds I shall write them.’ ” [it says afterward] “And I shall by no means call their sins and their lawless deeds to mind anymore.”-Hebrews 10: 15-17

Notice the writer of the book of Hebrews tells us that the holy spirit bears witness to us.  How can an impersonal force bear witness to someone?  In addition, the writer of the book of Hebrews tells us in verse 17 that the holy spirit (which the JWs’ Bible refers to with the impersonal pronoun “it”) will no longer hold the sins of the people to account anymore.  The questions now are how can an impersonal force do that and is the writer of the book of Hebrews giving some power to the Holy Spirit that would in the minds of the JWs belong only to Jehovah, whom they consider Almighty God?

Well, when I looked at the cross-reference to Hebrews 10:17 in the 1984 Reference Edition of the JWs’ New World Translation, it references the book of Jeremiah chapter 31: 34 which says:

“And they will no more teach each one his companion and each one his brother,’ saying, ‘Know Jehovah!’ for they will all know me, from the least one of them even to the greatest one of them,’ is the utterance of Jehovah.  “For I shall forgive their error, and their sin I shall remember no more.”-Jeremiah 31:34 New World Translation

So, the writer of the book of Hebrews appears to be saying that it is the Holy Spirit who will forgive the sins of the people and it appears as though He is quoting from a passage in Jeremiah which says that it is Jehovah, Almighty God, who will forgive the sins of the people.  Thus, I believed that an argument could be made that the writer of the book of Hebrews is equating the Holy Spirit as a person with the same qualities as God the Father!

It was at this point that I was beginning to see the way in which someone could accept the doctrine of the Trinity as a dogma that could be derived from Sacred Scripture.  And, I also began to realize that in many respects, the JWs did not really understand what the Trinity doctrine actually confessed about the nature of God.