Posts Tagged ‘Trinity’

Are the JWs Really the Re-establishment of 1st Century Christianity?

The JWs taught me that their organization is the re-establishment of authentic 1st Century Christianity without the “pagan” influences found in the Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Churches.  So, I reasoned that if the JWs are correct, then I should be able to find their doctrines in the writings of those Christians who were alive when the Apostles were still alive.  What I found was quite shocking to me.

I started with the writings of St. Ignatius who was the Bishop of Antioch.  He was taken to Rome where he was martyred for the faith.  During his trip to Rome, he wrote a series of letters to the Christian communities along the way.  These letters are believed to have been written as early as 98 A.D. which means that St. Ignatius was a contemporary of St. John the Apostle.

In the his writings, St. Ignatius confesses Jesus as God and, furthermore, is willing to die for this belief.  He also refers to the Eucharist as the flesh of Jesus Christ which is a very Catholic understanding of the Eucharist.  Here are some examples:

“being united and elected through the true passion by the will of the Father, and Jesus Christ, our God.”-The Epistle to the Ephesians

“There is one Physician who is possessed both of flesh and spirit; both made and not made; God existing in flesh; true life in death; both of Mary and of God; first passible and then impassible— even Jesus Christ our Lord.”-The Epistle to the Ephesians

“For our GodJesus Christ, was, according to the appointment of God, conceived in the womb by Mary, of the seed of David, but by the Holy Ghost. He was born and baptized, that by His passion He might purify the water.”-The Epistle to the Ephesians

“Be on your guard, therefore, against such persons. And this will be the case with you if you are not puffed up, and continue in intimate union with Jesus Christ our God, and the bishop, and the enactments of the apostles”.-The Epistle to the Trallians

For our GodJesus Christ, now that He is with the Father, is all the more revealed[in His glory]. Christianity is not a thing of silence only, but also of [manifest] greatness.-The Epistle to the Romans

“I desire the bread of God, the heavenly bread, the bread of life, which is the flesh of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who became afterwards of the seed of David and Abraham; and I desire the drink of God, namely His blood, which is incorruptible love and eternal life.”-The Epistle to the Romans

“Permit me to be an imitator of the passion of my God.”-The Epistle to the Romans

The writings of Ignatius really affected me because as a JW I was taught that after the Apostles died all of the “Catholic type of false doctrines” began to arise among the early Christians.  However, here was a leader of the Christian community in Antioch willing to die for these “Catholic” beliefs and he was alive during the time of the Apostle John.  Furthermore, no matter what Early Church Father I read, I discovered that their beliefs were in no way, shape or form similar to anything that the JWs taught or continue to teach at this time.  Therefore, I had to wonder if the claims that the JWs make of being the re-establishment of organized first century Christianity on earth was really something that I could believe in.


If you would like more information on the Early Church Fathers and what they believed compared to what the JWs claim you may wish to read the following:

THE WATCHTOWER AND THE ANTE-NICENE CHURCH FATHERS  by Michael J. Partyka

Jehovah’s Witnesses on Trial:  The Testimony of the Early Church Fathers by Robert U. Finnerty

After I read about the beliefs of the Early Church Fathers, I began wondering how it is that Christians decided what books to place in the New Testament or, as the JWs call it, the Christian Greek Scriptures.  The information I discovered here went a long way to attracting me to the Catholic Church.  I will talk about this in my next blog post.

Academic Dishonesty or Incompetence-What Did the Experts *Really* Say?

About the time Wayne Rogers and I had our discussion on how to properly interpret those proof text used by Trinitarians on the nature of God, I got a phone call from some Lutheran friends of mine who lived in Nebraska.  At the time I was a professor at Concordia University in Seward, NE and there was a small Jehovah’s Witness Kingdom Hall there. 

Evidently, some JWs were visiting some Lutheran friends of mine who attended the local Lutheran parish in Seward and these JWs had given them a copy of the brochure “Should You Believe in the Trinity?”  I had heard that the JW author of this booklet, which is still published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, had included many quotes in this booklet from history and theology experts to support the JWs’ views on the nature of God.  When my Lutheran friends had read the booklet they were confused by these quotes and troubled because there were no references in the booklet other than at most an author’s name and perhaps a title to a book or article.

Since, the local Lutheran college had a rather extensive theological collection, I told my Lutheran friends to meet me at the college library and that we would try to find as many of the references cited in the JWs’ booklet as we could to see if they had been taken out of context in some way.  The results of this exercise were shocking not only to my Lutheran friends but to me as well.

Here is an example of one of the many misquotes we found in the JWs’ booklet “Should You Believe in the Trinity?”  The JW author of the booklet is constantly making the argument that a faithful Christian would reject the Trinity doctrine because the Christian Greek Scriptures (that is JW speak for the New Testament), does not clearly present the Trinity doctrine.  In support of this view, they quote a ton of scholars who appear to support the JW author’s point of view.  Here is an example of one of the quotes that they use:

“Bernhard Lohse says in A Short History of Christian Doctrine: “As far as the New Testament is concerned, one does not find in it an actual doctrine of the Trinity.””  http://www.watchtower.org/e/ti/article_03.htm

For the trusting reader, this quote seems to be quite convincing.  However there is no page number cited in the booklet where one can go and read the original quotation in its entirety.  If one does, then one would get a whole different perspective on what Bernhard Lohse was trying to say.  Here is the quote in its entirety on page 38 of the book A Short History of Christian Doctrine:

“As far as the New Testament is concerned, one does not find in it an actual doctrine of the Trinity.  This does not mean very much, however, for generally speaking the New Testament is less intent upon setting forth certain doctrines than it is upon proclaiming the kingdom of God, a kingdom that dawns in and with the person of Jesus Christ.  At the same time, however, there are in the New Testament the rudiments of a concept of God that was susceptible of further development and clarification, along doctrinal lines.”

As one can see from the entire quote (as well as by reading the entire book), Lohse does not reject the Trinity and neither does he say that the Trinity is not found in the New Testament at all as the JW author claims he does.  What Lohse does say is that the fully formulated Trinity doctrine is not found in the New Testament but the “rudiments” of such a concept of God are found in the New Testament and the Church, over time, developed those ideas into the Trinity Doctrine.  In fact on page 41 of the book A Short History of Christian Doctrine, Lohse says:

“From the beginning, of course, certain fundamentals were firmly held by the church, namely, that God is one, i.e., that it did not believe in two, let alone three gods; that this one God has revealed himself in a threefold way as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit;”

The worse of the misquotes and misrepresentations that the JW author uses is when he quotes from Father Edward Fortman’s book entitled The Triune God.  To the trusting reader the JW author makes it appear as though Father Fortman, a Catholic priest no less, rejects the central doctrine of the religion that he is supposed to be advocating.  However, any reasonably intelligent individual can tell by reading just the first few pages of his book that Father Fortman is a very strong believer and defender of the Trinity doctrine and that his book is dealing with how the Church formulated this belief from Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition. 

The JW author’s reputation for misrepresenting and misquoting scholars in this booklet alone is the subject of TONS of websites.  If you want more examples, I will refer you to the following links:

http://www.bible.ca/trinity/trinity-jw-deceptions.htm

http://www.jwfacts.com/watchtower/trinity.php

http://www.towertotruth.net/ShouldYouBelieveintheTrinity.htm#top

In any case, after discovering these misquotes and misrepresentations, my Lutheran friends were very upset that someone would write and publish such a dishonest brochure.  They made photocopies of the full quotes and also checked out those books from the college library that they could to show their JW visitors how the author of the “Should You Believe in The Trinity?” booklet was misrepresenting things. 

About two months later, I got another call from my Lutheran friends and they told me that they had shared their information with their JW visitors.  They told me that the JW visitors were visibly shaken at what had been shared with them and that they took the photocopies with the promise that they would come back with an explanation.  However, my Lutheran friends said that their JW visitors never returned on the day they said they would.  In fact, when my Lutheran friends saw their JW visitors at a local restaurant and went over to say hello to them, the JWs quickly left the restaurant and refused to speak to my Lutheran friends.

I told my Lutheran friends that they should now pray for their JW visitors because obviously some seeds of doubt had been planted in them about whether or not the Watchtower Society leaders could be trusted when it comes to dealing with subjects about the nature of God.  It is one thing to believe differently than others but it is a whole other thing to grossly misrepresent the beliefs of others in such an academically dishonest, at worse, or academically incompetent, at best, way.

About a week or so after I had coached my Lutheran friends and after they had been shunned by their JW friends at the local restaurant, two JW elders knocked on my door.  The little town where I lived in Nebraska was quite small so it did not take the local elders long to discover who it was who had been coaching the local Lutherans in their discussions with the local JWs.

 Evidently, one of the elders who visited me was the Presiding Elder of the local congregation and his daughter was one of the JWs who had visited my Lutheran friends.  I imagine that the presentation that my Lutheran friends had given her must have really shaken her up to make her father go on a search and visit mission to meet with me.  The two elders tried to discover who I was and where I was from and when I did not give them the information they wanted and when I told them my intention was to continue to share this information with whomever would visit my home and the homes of my Lutheran friends, the two JW elders got quite angry.  (In fact, one of them got in my face and began to close his fist as if getting ready to hit me when the other elder pulled him back and convinced him to leave.)

Another thing that happened during this time was that in addition to misquoting Biblical Scholars of the 19th and 20th centuries in this booklet, the JWs also misrepresented a group of individuals known as The Early Church Fathers.  These individuals wrote about the beliefs of the Christians during the end of the 1st Century and beyond.  I will discuss what I discovered in these writings next.

The Creation Contradiction

One of the contradictions that was pointed out to me by Jay Hess had to do with answering the question, “Who created the heavens and the earth?”

For example in the New World Translation the following scriptures from the Old Testament indicate that Jehovah, whom the Jehovah’s Witnesses would say is God the Father, is the One who created everything by Himself with no assistance from anyone:

“This is what Jehovah has said, your Repurchaser and the Former of you from the belly: “I, Jehovah, am doing everything, stretching out the heavens by myself, laying out the earth.  Who was with me?”-Isaiah 44: 24 -New World Translation

“This is what Jehovah has said, the Holy One of Israel and the Former of him: “Ask me even about the things that are coming concerning my sons; and concerning the activity of my hands you people should command me. I myself have made the earth and have created even many upon it.  I –my own hands have stretched out the heavens, and all the army of them I have commanded.” –Isaiah 45: 11, 12 New World Translation

However, the JWs believe that Jesus was created directly by Jehovah and was used by Jehovah to help him create the rest of the Universe.  To support this view of Jesus being responsible for the creation of the Universe they cite the following scripture (remember that the Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that the Word (in Greek “Logos”) is Jesus in his pre-human existence):

“In [the] beginning the Word was, and the Word was with God, and the Word was a god. This one was in [the] beginning with God.  All things came into existence through him, and apart from him not even one thing came into existence.” John 1:1-3 New World Translation

Note that the JWs’ own Bible indicates that not one thing that came into existence came into existence apart from the work of the Word-Jesus Christ.  However, if one accepts the belief that Jesus is not equal in nature to God the Father and that the Word, Jesus, cannot also be rightly referred to as Jehovah (or Yahweh), then it appears as though the Old Testament claims made by Jehovah in Isaiah are contradicting the New Testament claims made about the Word, Jesus, in the Gospel of John.   In other words, how could Jehovah (or Yahweh) make the claim that He created the heavens and earth by Himself if Jesus was there to help Him as the JWs claim?

For a Trinitarian, however, this is not a problem because Trinitarians believe that Jesus has all of the attributes and abilities of God the Father and, therefore, can also be referred to as Jehovah (or Yahweh) so then there is no contradiction here.   As the Catechism of the Catholic Church states in paragraph 292:

The Old Testament suggests and the New Covenant reveals the creative action of the Son and the Spirit, inseparably one with that of the Father. This creative co-operation is clearly affirmed in the Church’s rule of faith: “There exists but one God. . . he is the Father, God, the Creator, the author, the giver of order. He made all things by himself, that is, by his Word and by his Wisdom”, “by the Son and the Spirit” who, so to speak, are “his hands”. Creation is the common work of the Holy Trinity.”

If you remember, this discussion on the Trinity started when a former JW, Wayne Rogers, asked me why I accepted the divinity of Christ after leaving the JWs. What I have written over the last few weeks is what I learned from mostly Protestant Bible Scholars about what most Christians believed about the nature of God.  After sharing these views with Wayne, his response to me was, “You know, all of these scriptures that you shared with me were pretty much the same ones we used as JWs, you have just interpreted them differently now.  How do you know that your interpretation of these scriptures is correct?”

I thought that was an excellent question so I told him that I would do some reading to see how Christians interpreted these scriptures back in the first and second centuries.  This lead me to discovering the writings of the Early Church Fathers.  I will share these findings with you in the coming weeks.

The JWs’ Modalism Mistake.

Trinitarians reject Modalism

As I read more and more documents, Protestant, Orthodox, and Catholic, about what these Christians believed about the nature of God, the more I realized how mistaken JWs are when they try to characterize what it is Protestant, Orthodox and Catholic Christians believe about the nature of God.  For example in the Watchtower publication known as Reasoning from the Scriptures on page 405 it says the following about how Christians explain the Trinity doctrine:

“According to the Athanasian Creed, there are three divine Persons (the Father, the Son, the Holy Ghost), each said to be eternal, each said to be almighty, none greater or less than another, each said to be God, and yet together being but one God. Other statements of the dogma emphasize that these three “Persons” are not separate and distinct individuals but are three modes in which the divine essence exists.”

The latter part of the quote above which says that some Trinitarians believe that the “Persons” of the Blessed Trinity are not ‘separate and distinct individuals but are three modes in which the divine essence exists’, is not an accurate representation of the Trinity doctrine but it is an accurate description of another doctrine regarding the nature of God known as Modalism.

Modalism is described as a heresy by the Protestant Theologian Dr. Robert Morey in his book The Trinity-Evidence and Issues.  He describes what Modalism is on page 507:

“From the beginning, Modalism was based on the Platonic doctrine that God was an indivisible Monad and could not be divided into three separate Persons.  Thus, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are not to be viewed as three distinct Persons, but as three different manifestations, modes, administrations, disguises, roles, or offices of one and the same Person.”

Also, the Catechism of the Catholic Church says the following in paragraph 254:

“The divine persons are really distinct from one another.  God is one but not solitary. “Father”, “Son”, “Holy Spirit” are not simply names designating modalities of the divine being, for they are really distinct from one another: “He is not the Father who is the Son, nor is the Son he who is the Father, nor is the Holy Spirit he who is the Father or the Son.” They are distinct from one another in their relations of origin: “It is the Father who generates, the Son who is begotten, and the Holy Spirit who proceeds.” The divine Unity is Triune.”

So, in reality then, neither mainstream Protestant, Orthodox, nor Catholic scholars believe that the Father, the Son, and the Spirit are the same person.  This means that much of the arguments that the JWs believe they are making against the Trinity doctrine are really arguments being made against the heresy of Modalism.  For example, in the book You Can Live Forever In Paradise On Earth on page 39 under the subheading IS GOD JESUS OR A TRINITY? it says:

“Further, on one occasion Jesus prayed to God, saying: “Let, not my will, but yours take place.” (Luke 22:42) If Jesus were the Almighty God, he would not have prayed to himself, would he?”

This question may cause a problem for a person who believes in Modalism and but it does not for a Trinitarian.  For the Trinitarian, Jesus is praying to God the Father who is a separate person from the Son.  However, Trinitarians do believe that Jesus, as God’s Son, has all of the qualities and attributes of God the Father and is, Almighty God by nature in a similar manner as a human child has all of the qualities of his human parents and is human by nature.

One of the many problems that I began to discover when accepting the JWs’ view of the nature of God is that I started seeing some serious contradictions between the Old and New Testaments when it came to dealing with the revelation about God’s nature.  I will explore this next.

The Holy Spirit is a Person and The Holy Spirit is God

The Holy Spirit is a Person

The JWs, deny the personhood of the Holy Spirit.  The scriptural evidence they give to say that the Holy Spirit is not a person is as follows:

“As for the “Holy Spirit,” the so-called third Person of the Trinity, we have already seen that this is not a person but God’s active force.  John the Baptizer said that Jesus would baptize with holy spirit, even as John had been baptizing with water.  Hence, in the same way that water is not a person, holy spirit is not a person. (Matthew 3:11)  What John foretold was fulfilled when, following the death and resurrection of Jesus, holy spirit was poured out on his followers gathered in Jerusalem.  The Bible says: “They all became filled with holy spirit.” (Acts 2:4)  Were they “filled” with a person?  No, but they were filled with God’s active force.”- You Can Live Forever In Paradise On Earth page 40

However, the JWs will admit that anyone in the Bible who is depicted has having an intellect and will is a person.  They say this in their discussion about the person of God when they say on page 36 of the book You Can Live Forever In Paradise On Earth, that God exhibits intelligence and, therefore, this along with him having a body makes God a person.

If the Holy Spirit is a person, we would expect for the Bible to describe and attribute to the Holy Spirit those qualities and abilities that we would expect a person to have such as intellect (the ability to know), emotion (the ability to feel) and will (the ability to choose).   An impersonal active force, however, would not have these capabilities.  Notice how the actions of the Holy Spirit are described even in the New World Translation:

“But when they are leading you along to deliver you up, do not be anxious before-hand about what to speak; but whatever is given you in that hour, speak this, for you are not the ones speaking, but the holy spirit is.”-Mark 13:11

“Thus says the holy spirit, ‘The man to whom this girdle belongs the Jews will bind in this manner in Jerusalem and deliver into the hands of people of the nations.”- Acts 21:11

“Moreover, the holy spirit also bears witness to us,”-Hebrews 10:15

After I read these scriptures, I wondered how an impersonal force can speak or bear witness as in a courtroom.  Notice the next examples from the New World Translation:

“As they were publically ministering to Jehovah and fasting, the holy spirit said: “Of all persons set Barnabas and Saul apart for me for the work to which I have called them.”-Acts 13:2

“For the holy spirit and we ourselves have favored adding no further burden to you, except these necessary things.” Acts 15:28

“Moreover, they went through Phrygia and the country of Galatia, because they were forbidden by the holy spirit to speak the word in the [district of] Asia.-Acts 16:6

“Pay attention to yourselves and to all the flock, among which the holy spirit has appointed you overseers, to shepherd the congregation of God, which he purchased with the blood of his own [Son].-Acts 20:28

After I read these scriptures, I wondered how an impersonal force can choose individuals, choose not to add further burdens to others, forbid the apostles from going to Asia, and even choose overseers in the local congregations in Ephesus.  These are all examples of what a person would do who has intellect (the ability to know) and will (the ability to choose).  Notice the next scripture from the New World Translation:

“Also, do not be grieving God’s holy spirit, with which you have been sealed for a day of releasing by ransom.”-Hebrews 10:29

After reading this scripture, I wondered how an impersonal force could feel grieved.  Here was another example of the Holy Spirit having the emotional attribute (the ability to feel) of a person.

In short, there are many references to the Holy Spirit as a person, even in the JWs own New World Translation of the Bible.  The JWs response to this would be to say that the inspired writers are merely using the literary technique of personification which is that they are giving the attributes of personhood to a thing whereas a more correct understanding of scripture would be to realize that the holy spirit is merely a force belonging to God that is no more a person than the natural forces of fire and water.

At this point, I was rather confused as to which perspective was most correct.  It seemed that I was at an impasse as both the JWs and the Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians could both point to scriptures which appeared to support their very different points of view.  However, I was impressed by the number of scriptures that the Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians could cite in support of the Holy Spirit being a person.

What I wanted to know now, was how Catholics, Orthodox, and Protestants came to the conclusion that the Holy Spirit is God, the third person of the Blessed Trinity, using the Bible.

The Holy Spirit is God!

During our discussion on the Divinity of Christ, I gave examples of how the New Testament writers applied Old Testament scriptures that the Jews applied to Jehovah (or Yahweh) and now applied these to Christ.  These examples went a long way in helping me to see how Christians, Orthodox, Protestant, and Catholic could come to the conclusion using the Bible that Jesus is God by nature because according to the writers of the New Testament, Jesus has all of the qualities of God the Father while being a separate person from God the Father.  I wondered, if there were any examples of this relating to the Holy Spirit.  With the help of the JWs own New World Translation of the Bible and the book The Trinity: Evidence and Issues by Dr. Robert Morey, I found some examples that proved to be very troubling for me.

In Acts 28:25-27, St. Paul is speaking to the Jewish people of the city of Rome about the Gospel of Jesus.  In his last words to them, the following is said according to the New World Translation:

“The holy spirit aptly spoke through Isaiah the prophet to your forefathers, saying, ‘Go to this people and say: “By hearing, you will hear but by no means understand; and, looking you will look but by no means see.” For the heart of this people has grown unreceptive, and with their ears they have heard without response, and they have shut their eyes; that they should never see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and turn back, and I should heal them.”

In the 1984 Reference Edition of the New World Translation, it has a cross-reference to the book of Isaiah chapter 6.  Notice who Isaiah says is speaking these words:

“And I began to hear the voice of Jehovah saying: “Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?” And proceeded to say: “Here I am! Send me.” And he went on to say: “Go, and you must say to this people, ‘Hear again and again, O men, but do not understand; and see again and again, but do not get any knowledge.’ Make the heart of this people unreceptive, and make their very ears unresponsive, and past their very eyes together, that they may not see with their eyes and with their ears they many not hear, and that their own heart may not understand and that they may not actually turn back and get healing for themselves.”-Isaiah 6:8-10 New World Translation

So, in addition to St. Paul saying that the Holy Spirit speaks which in and of itself seems to indicate that the Holy Spirit is a person, St. Paul attributes the words of Jehovah from the book of Isaiah as coming from the Holy Spirit.  I found this troubling because how can an impersonal force speak and, furthermore, how can an impersonal force speak as if it is Almighty God, Jehovah, Himself?

In another example of this, the writer of the book of Hebrews says that the Holy Spirit bears witness to us as in a courtroom about the New Covenant that Jehovah wishes to make with his faithful people.   Here is what it says in the New World Translation:

Moreover, the holy spirit also bears witness to us, for after it has said: “ ‘This is the covenant that I shall covenant toward them after those days,’ says Jehovah.  ‘I will put my laws in their hearts, and in their minds I shall write them.’ ” [it says afterward] “And I shall by no means call their sins and their lawless deeds to mind anymore.”-Hebrews 10: 15-17

Notice the writer of the book of Hebrews tells us that the holy spirit bears witness to us.  How can an impersonal force bear witness to someone?  In addition, the writer of the book of Hebrews tells us in verse 17 that the holy spirit (which the JWs’ Bible refers to with the impersonal pronoun “it”) will no longer hold the sins of the people to account anymore.  The questions now are how can an impersonal force do that and is the writer of the book of Hebrews giving some power to the Holy Spirit that would in the minds of the JWs belong only to Jehovah, whom they consider Almighty God?

Well, when I looked at the cross-reference to Hebrews 10:17 in the 1984 Reference Edition of the JWs’ New World Translation, it references the book of Jeremiah chapter 31: 34 which says:

“And they will no more teach each one his companion and each one his brother,’ saying, ‘Know Jehovah!’ for they will all know me, from the least one of them even to the greatest one of them,’ is the utterance of Jehovah.  “For I shall forgive their error, and their sin I shall remember no more.”-Jeremiah 31:34 New World Translation

So, the writer of the book of Hebrews appears to be saying that it is the Holy Spirit who will forgive the sins of the people and it appears as though He is quoting from a passage in Jeremiah which says that it is Jehovah, Almighty God, who will forgive the sins of the people.  Thus, I believed that an argument could be made that the writer of the book of Hebrews is equating the Holy Spirit as a person with the same qualities as God the Father!

It was at this point that I was beginning to see the way in which someone could accept the doctrine of the Trinity as a dogma that could be derived from Sacred Scripture.  And, I also began to realize that in many respects, the JWs did not really understand what the Trinity doctrine actually confessed about the nature of God.

Placing God In A Box

Having come to the conclusion that God’s nature is infinitely above our nature as humans and that it should be expected that we would have difficulty completely grasping the nature of God based on our human reason and experience alone, I became open to the possibility that the doctrine of the Trinity could be the best explanation of the divine nature of Almighty God.

What still troubled me, however, was the question as to whether the JWs’ view of God was consistent with the understanding that God operated outside the confines of space and time as Catholic and Protestant Christians seemed to believe.  So, I looked for evidence of this in Watchtower publications and was somewhat surprised at what I found.

In the Watchtower publication entitled You Can Live Forever In Paradise On Earth there is a chapter entitled “God-Who Is He?”  In this chapter the JWs describe Jehovah, whom they consider to be Almighty God, as a single person, in contrast to the Catholic and Protestant views of Almighty God as multi-personal.  In addition, to saying that Almighty God, Jehovah, is a single person, they also say that Jehovah has a brain and a body.  Notice the following:

“While most people say they believe in God, many do not think of him as a real person.  Is he? Well, it can be seen that where there is intelligence there is a mind.  For example, we may say, ‘I cannot make up my mind.’ And we know where there is a mind there is a brain in a body of a definite shape. So, then, the great mind responsible for all creation belongs to the great Person, Almighty God.  Although he does not have a material body, he has a spiritual one.  A spirit person has a body?  Yes, the Bible says: “If there is a physical body, there is a spiritual one.” -1 Corinthians 15:44; John 4:24 page 36

What are the ramifications of the belief that God has a mind, with a brain, and a “spirit body” of some definite shape?  Notice the JWs’ answer:

“Since God is a person with a spiritual body, he must have a place to live.  The Bible tells us that the heavens are God’s “established place of dwelling.” (1 Kings 8:43)  Also, we are told that “Christ entered…into the heavens itself, now to appear before the person of God for us.” (Hebrews 9:24) Some humans will be rewarded with life in heaven with God, at which time they will receive spirit bodies.  They will see God, the Bible says, and also be like him. (1 John 3:2) This, too shows that God is a person, and that he has a body.”-You Can Live Forever In Paradise On Earth pages 36, 37

So, according to the reasoning of the JWs, since God is a person, he must have a mind, and, therefore, he must have a brain in a “spirit body” of some definite shape.  Since God has a body with a definite shape, this means that God needs a place somewhere in the universe to live.  Now, in this book, the JWs simply say that God lives in the heavens.  However, in years past they were much more specific.  Notice the following:

“Some, however, believe that they have found the direction of it to be the Pleiades, and particularly Alcyone, the central one of the renowned Pleiadic stars. To the distinguished German astronomer, Prof. J. H. Maedler, belongs the honor of having made this discovery. Alcyone, then, as far as science has been able to perceive, would seem to be the ‘midnight throne’ in which the whole system of gravitation has its central seat, and from which the Almighty governs his universe.”- Thy Kingdom Come published by the Watchtower Society 1903 Edition page 327.

“The constellation of the Pleiades is a small one compared with others which scientific instruments disclose to the wondering eyes of man.  But the greatness in size of other stars or planets is small when compared with Pleiades in importance, because the Pleiades is the place of the eternal throne of God.”-Reconcilation published by the Watchtower Society in 1928 on page 14.

So, at one point in their history, the JWs believed that Jehovah actually lived on the star Alcyone in the Pleiades constellation.  However, in the November 15th, 1953 issue of The Watchtower they said the following:

“Incidentally, Pleiades can no longer be considered the center of the universe and it would be unwise for us to try to fix God’s throne as being at a particular spot in the universe.”-page 703

So, while JWs no longer teach that Jehovah the person who has a brain in a ‘spirit body of a definite shape’ lives on the star known as Alcyone in the Pleiades constellation they do believe that Jehovah lives someplace within the created universe.  This, to me, seems to indicate that JWs believe that God lives within the bounds of the created universe and, therefore, within the bounds of space and time.  The JWs recognize the box into which they have placed Jehovah when they say the following:

“But someone may ask: ‘If God is a real person who lives at a certain place in heaven, how can he see everything that happens everywhere? And how can his power be felt in every part of the universe?’ (2 Chronicles 16:9)  The fact that God is a person in no way limits his power or greatness.  Nor should it lessen our respect for Him. (1 Chronicles 29:11-13) To help us to understand this, consider the far-reaching effects of an electric power plant.

A power plant has a certain location in or near a city.  But its electricity is distributed over all that area, providing light and power.  It is similar with God.  He is in the heavens. (Isaiah 57:15; Psalm 123:1) Yet his holy spirit, which is his invisible active force, can be felt everywhere, over all the universe.  By means of his holy spirit God created the heavens, the earth and all living things. (Psalm 33:6; Genesis 1:2; Psalm 104:30) To create these things, God did not need to be present in body.  He can send out his spirit, his active force, to do whatever he wants even though he is far away.  What a marvelous God!-Jeremiah 10:12; Daniel 4:35.”-You Can Live Forever In Paradise On Earth page 37

So, for the JW, God is truly far away and only interacts with us via his impersonal active force which is what the JWs consider to be the holy spirit.  In addition, for the JWs, God is not omnipresent but is confined to some place in the heavens but his power his merely felt by us via this impersonal active force much like electricity is felt from a local power plant.  This view of God is very different from what Christians, both Catholic and Protestant, believe about the nature of God.  For Catholic and Protestant Christians, God is immanent in that He is everywhere and transcendent in that He cannot be confined to space and time like finite human beings can.

At this point, I was unsure as to what view of God to accept.  However, I was now realizing that the extreme difference in understanding about the nature of God results in some very different understandings of how God acts toward his creatures as well.  And, I was curious to see what scriptures might support the Catholic and Protestant view that the holy spirit is a person.

The Mysterious Nature of Almighty God!

In general, the JWs are very uncomfortable with mystery.  In many respects, if there is something about the nature of God that is hard to understand or difficult to explain using mainly human reason, it makes the average JW very uncomfortable.  I will demonstrate this with a couple of examples from my own JW experience.

I can remember, as a JW, attending five meetings a week.  One of those meetings was usually on Tuesday evening where we met in the home of one of our fellow JWs and one of the local congregation elders lead us in a study of the Bible using one of the books published by the Watchtower Society as a guide.

Many of the topics that we discussed at these meetings dealt with the end of the world, as JWs saw it, and how Bible prophecy was being fulfilled in the world, as JWs saw it, at this very moment.  Much was made about the sovereignty of Jehovah, as Almighty God, and the inherent right that Jehovah had to rule over man.  During these studies we often discussed the great power and might of Jehovah as Almighty God.  I can remember reading the following scripture fairly often when a discussion of the greatness of Jehovah was the topic for that evening’s study:

“O, Jehovah, you yourself have proved to be a real dwelling for us. During generation after generation. Before the mountains themselves were born.  Or you proceeded to bring forth as with labor pains the earth and the productive land.  Even from time indefinite to time indefinite you are God.”-Psalms 90: 1, 2 New World Translation [Bold added]

This scripture and in particular the bolded part was emphasized to indicate that Jehovah, as Almighty God, had no beginning and no ending.  I remember trying to get my mind around the fact that as a JW we believed that Jehovah never had a beginning and never will have an ending and that Jehovah has and will always just exist.  I remember trying to discuss this attribute of Jehovah with my father and asking him about it.

He told me not to think about it too much because it would make me go crazy and there was really nothing good that could come of thinking about it.  Here was a mystery about God that the JWs accepted and that I could in some sense explain and understand on an intellectual level to some degree but it was beyond my human reason and experience to totally grasp. And, obviously my father was rather uncomfortable with this mystery about God.

Years later when I was in college, I had the opportunity to take a couple of classes in World History and World Literature.  In these classes, we were exposed to much of the classical history and literature of Western Civilization.  It was here that I was exposed to many different views on the nature of God throughout history, and I was also exposed to a somewhat systematic view of the Catholic and Protestant views on the nature of God which is vastly different from the JWs’ view on the nature of God.

In particularly, I remember for the first time realizing that for the mainstream Catholic and Protestant, God existed outside of time.  This was something rather new to me.  As a JW, I believed that God had always existed but that He had always existed within the bounds of space and time and I had never really considered the idea that Jehovah existed outside of the bounds of space and time.

One day while I was eating dinner with my parents and my siblings, I asked them for their opinion on whether or not we, as JWs, believed that Jehovah existed beyond the bounds of space and time.  When I asked the question my father had already left the dinner table and while he may have been in the room he did not really actively engage in the discussion.  My mother was starting to clear the table and was not really engaged in the discussion either but was listening as my brothers and I had this really interesting discussion on the topic with each of us giving our opinion.

After the discussion went on for about an hour or so, my mother, who must have been listening to our discussion, turned around from the kitchen sink where she had been washing dishes and with tears in her eyes and ran into her bedroom and slammed the door.  In a matter of minutes, my father entered the dining room and gave us all a good scolding for engaging in such an unprofitable discussion that had obviously upset my mother.

It was these experiences along with other things published in Watchtower literature that helped me to realize that the JWs, in general, are very uncomfortable with mystery and will do what they can to get rid of mystery in their own religion.

The JWs’ and the Christian’s view of Mystery

In the JWs’ booklet entitled Should You Believe In the Trinity? one of the main arguments they make against the Trinity doctrine is that it is considered to be a mystery and, for the JWs, mystery is equivalent to mental confusion.  Notice what they say in this on-line booklet:

“However, contending that since the Trinity is such a confusing mystery, it must have come from divine revelation creates another major problem. Why? Because divine revelation itself does not allow for such a view of God: “God is not a God of confusion.”—1 Corinthians 14:33Revised Standard Version (RS). http://www.watchtower.org/e/ti/article_02.htm

Their reasoning is that since the Trinity doctrine is mysterious and confusing and difficult to understand that this means it is not a trustworthy revelation about the nature of God since God is “not a God of confusion.” So, for the JW, when a Christian refers to the Trinity as a profound mystery it is, in the JW’s mind, the Christian’s way of admitting that they are confused and do not understand the Trinity doctrine.  However, this is not what a Christian means when they say that the Trinity is a profound mystery.

First of all, the doctrine of the Trinity has been stated and re-stated in numerous official Church documents throughout history.  Therefore, anyone who has the ability to read can discover for themselves what it is the Catholic Church teaches about the Triune nature of God.  For example, here is what is said about the Trinity doctrine in the Catechism of the Catholic Church in paragraph 253:

“The Trinity is one.  We do not confess three Gods, but one God in three persons, the “consubstantial Trinity.” The divine persons do not share the one divinity among themselves but each of them is God whole and entire: “The Father is that which the Son is, the Son that which the Father is, the Father and the Son that which the Holy Spirit is, i.e., by nature one God.” In the words of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215):  “Each of the persons is that supreme reality, viz., the divine substance, essence or nature.”

For an excellent explanation of the Trinity written by a Protestant Theologian, I recommend the book The Trinity: Evidence and Issues by Dr. Robert Morey.

These writings give a very clear explanation of what a Christian, both Catholic and Protestant, believes when they confess their understanding of the nature of God as being Triune.  Christians, both Catholic and Protestant, believe that God is multi-personal.  With each person of the Blessed Trinity- Father, Son, and Spirit- having all of the qualities of God.

However, Christians, both Catholic and Protestant, will admit that this understanding of the nature of God is beyond our complete grasp using human reason and experience alone.  Therefore, because of this, God’s very nature is mysterious to us.  We can explain the nature of God to some extent by analogy but we have difficulty totally understanding the nature of God using our human reason and human experience alone and because of this, it is a mystery.

Similarly, as a JW, I was taught that Jehovah has just always existed and that he never had a beginning and will never have an ending.  This statement of belief about the nature of God is very clearly stated by the JWs as something that we believed as JWs.  It was not confusing per se, but it was beyond my ability as a JW to grasp completely using my human reason and experience alone.  It was a belief that we as JWs accepted about Jehovah but it was and is very mysterious to JWs, not unlike the way in which the Triune nature of God is mysterious to Christians.  The JWs even admit this in their book You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth page 44:

“Although it may be hard for our minds to understand, Jehovah never had a beginning and will never have an end.  He is the “King of eternity.” (Psalm 90:2; 1 Timothy 1:17)

Once I realized that the JWs, in their own way, accept certain mysteries about God’s nature, such as Jehovah’s having always existed, in a similar way that Christians accept certain mysteries about God’s nature, like the Tri-unity of persons, I realized that just because a certain doctrine might be difficult to understand completely based on human reason and experience alone that this was not a good reason to reject a doctrine as false.